Every diplomacy in every country will depend on the leader, Indonesia itself has changed the way of diplomacy. previously, Indonesia under Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono has the ideology " thousand friend zero enemy" which drives Indonesia to gain as much as friend and ally, focusing on diplomatic ties between other countries. This belief also prioritize dialogue and diplomatics practice to solve conflicts. However, as the president changes, the ideology on diplomacy also changes. Indonesia under President Joko Widodo has different approach on diplomacy.
Down To Earth Diplomacy
Down to Earth Diplomacy has a goal to ensure the sovereignty of Indonesian people. President Joko Widodo (Jokowi) aims to make Indonesia sovereign in its politics, Independent in Economy and distinct in its cultural character. Putting back on Indonesia’s identity as the maritime county, Down to Earth Diplomacy will emphasize the readiness of Indonesia in international politics. In Jokowi’s presidential, the foreign diplomacy based on three priorities.
First, Maintaining Indonesia’s Sovereignty. Indonesia’s international interaction will be based on the principle of mutual respect for each other’s territorial sovereignty. Hence, Indonesia will not tolerate any violations and enhance border protection through increase the presence of Indonesian power in border areas.
Second, Priority in enhancing the protection of Indonesian Citizen and legal entities. There are facts on many violence experienced by Indonesian migrant worker abroad, sadly the number of this violence is still high, therefore, by this diplomacy, Indonesia will protect its citizen by forcing the guarantee of safety for Indonesian migrant worker. Indonesia would only agree to send migrant workers if the country of destination had national legislation that guarantees the protection of foreign migrant workers and/or had a bilateral agreement with the country destination. The protection for Indonesian migrant workers will also be conducted at the regional level such as ASEAN.
Third, intensifying economic diplomacy. Indonesia’s vision has changed from the Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY) era that is “Zero Enemy Thousand Friends. Under presidential of Jokowi, there will be a strict law regarding on maritime issue. This diplomacy focusing on regional and international cooperation in the field of maritime infrastructure, energy, fishery and the protection of the marine environment. There is a law enforcement toward the issue of illegal fishery. Indonesia is committed to stop any violation in Indonesian water area.
In the field of trade, Indonesia also increases export and attracting investment for Indonesian development.
Diplomacy For Maritime Fulcrum
As President Jokowi has announced his vision to transform Indonesia’s diplomacy from Zero Enemy Thousand Friends to Global Maritime Axis. Indonesia is willing to work with other countries to forge maritime based cooperation. Its vision works with countries such as China, United States of America, Germany, Japan, South Korea Norway, and India whereas these countries have shown interest in Indonesian, maritime fulcrum. Fulcrum Diplomacy has importance to secure multidimensional and multisector operation. Thus, there are three dimensions in which partnership with other countries can be fostered.
First, Indonesia ensures sovereignty in the territorial water along with sovereign right oer its natural resources in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEC). This has been mentioned as well in international law through the 1982 UN Convention of the Law of the Seas (UNCLOS). Indonesia has 10 maritime borders with 10 countries. The main point is to secure the maritime border and its natural resources. In this priority, law enforcement will be considered as the main priority. For instance, sinking boats that caught fishing illegally which has been done by Ministry of Fishery Susi Pudjiastuti
Second, Security of Dimension. Indonesia’s vision to be global maritime axis takes action on the belief that Indonesia should not only act as the center of maritime dynamics and economic activity between two continents and two oceans but also take great responsibility. Indonesia has threats i the maritime territory such as smuggling and piracy and interstate conflicts such territorial disputes. Therefore, mediation and negotiation toward conflict in water territory would be the first action to take.
Third, prosperity of dimension. To boost Indonesia’s economy by taking advantage of maritime resources, maritime dynamic and interaction in the Asia-Pacific region. Economy dynamics in Southeast Asia is projected to skyrocket as the result of shifting economic gravity from the Trans-Atlantic to the Asia Pacific. According to Dr. Damansjah Djumala, in his article posted by Ministry of Foreign Affair’s website 11 August 2016 “Diplomacy of Maritime Fulcrum”, there is 70 percent of world trade takes place around the Asia Pacific, which approximately 45% of it passes through Indonesian archipelago.
Dr. Damansjah beliefs that it should be done first at the regional level, such as through ASEAN and the Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA). Two of six pillars of IORA are mentioned directly related to maritime issue, maritime security and fishery management.
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